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Encyclopedia of Pathology

Living Edition
| Editors: J.H.J.M. van Krieken

Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Related Neoplasms

  • Emily Mitchell
  • Emma Gudgin
  • Livia Raso-BarnettEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28845-1_3816-1
  • 157 Downloads

Synonyms

Definition

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a bone marrow cancer, characterized by the clonal expansion and lack of differentiation of early myeloid cells. In the majority of cases, the diagnosis of AML requires a myeloid blast count ≥20% of nucleated cells in the blood or bone marrow. Blasts can also infiltrate other organs or tissues such as skin, gums, or lymph nodes. Rarely AML can present as an isolated myeloid sarcoma in any tissue. The definition of myeloid blasts includes abnormal promyelocytes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and promonocytes in monocytic/monoblastic AML. Almost any myeloid lineage can be affected; myeloid or monocytic are relatively common, but rare basophilic, pure erythroid and megakaryocytic forms of AML exist.

Classification

AML is an extremely...
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References and Further Reading

  1. Döhner, H., Estey, E., Grimwade, D., Amadori, S., Appelbaum, F. R., Büchner, T., Dombret, H., Ebert, B. L., Fenaux, P., Larson, R. A., Levine, R. L., Lo-Coco, F., Naoe, T., Niederwieser, D., Ossenkoppele, G. J., Sanz, M., Sierra, J., Tallman, M. S., Tien, H. F., Wei, A. H., Löwenberg, B., & Bloomfield, C. D. (2017). Diagnosis and management of AML in adults: 2017 ELN recommendations from an international expert panel. Blood, 129(4), 424–447.
  2. Erber, W. (Ed.). (2010). Diagnostic techniques in hematological malignancies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Ley, T. J., Miller, C., Ding, L., Raphael, B. J., Mungall, A. J., Robertson, A., Hoadley, K., Triche, T. J., Jr., Laird, P. W., Baty, J. D., Fulton, L. L., Fulton, R., Heath, S. E., Kalicki-Veizer, J., Kandoth, C., Klco, J. M., Koboldt, D. C., Kanchi, K. L., Kulkarni, S., Lamprecht, T. L., Larson, D. E., Lin, L., Lu, C., McLellan, M. D., McMichael, J. F., Payton, J., Schmidt, H., Spencer, D. H., Tomasson, M. H., Wallis, J. W., Wartman, L. D., Watson, M. A., Welch, J., Wendl, M. C., Ally, A., Balasundaram, M., Birol, I., Butterfield, Y., Chiu, R., Chu, A., Chuah, E., Chun, H. J., Corbett, R., Dhalla, N., Guin, R., He, A., Hirst, C., Hirst, M., Holt, R. A., Jones, S., Karsan, A., Lee, D., Li, H. I., Marra, M. A., Mayo, M., Moore, R. A., Mungall, K., Parker, J., Pleasance, E., Plettner, P., Schein, J., Stoll, D., Swanson, L., Tam, A., Thiessen, N., Varhol, R., Wye, N., Zhao, Y., Gabriel, S., Getz, G., Sougnez, C., Zou, L., Leiserson, M. D., Vandin, F., Wu, H. T., Applebaum, F., Baylin, S. B., Akbani, R., Broom, B. M., Chen, K., Motter, T. C., Nguyen, K., Weinstein, J. N., Zhang, N., Ferguson, M. L., Adams, C., Black, A., Bowen, J., Gastier-Foster, J., Grossman, T., Lichtenberg, T., Wise, L., Davidsen, T., Demchok, J. A., Shaw, K. R., Sheth, M., Sofia, H. J., Yang, L., Downing, J. R., & Eley, G. (2013). Genomic and epigenomic landscapes of adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(22), 2059–2074.
  4. Swerdlow, S. H., Campo, E., Harris, N. L., Jaffe, E. S., & Pileri, S. A. (2017). Stein H. WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues (Rev. 4th ed.). Lyon: IARC.
  5. Tzankov, A., Hebeda, K., Kremer, M., Leguit, R., Orazi, A., van der Walt, J., & Gianelli, U. (2017 May). Plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferations and neoplasms involving the bone marrow: Summary of the workshop cases submitted to the 18th meeting of the European Association for Haematopathology (EAHP) organized by the European bone marrow working group, Basel 2016. Annals of Hematology, 96(5), 765–777.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emily Mitchell
    • 1
  • Emma Gudgin
    • 1
  • Livia Raso-Barnett
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Haematopathology and Oncology Diagnostic Service (HODS), Cambridge University HospitalsAddenbrookes HospitalCambridgeUK