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Acheulean Industrial Complex

  • Kathleen KumanEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_653-2
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Introduction

For almost a million years in Africa during the first phase of human cultural development known as the Oldowan industrial complex, there appears to have been limited directional change in tool technology. As sophisticated and variable as that technology had been, many archaeologists consider it a time of relative technological stasis, with differences across assemblages being relatively minor. Although the success of the simple core and flake adaptation was evident in its long endurance, by 1.7 Ma, innovations began with the appearance of the Acheulean. An adaptive and technological threshold was crossed with the knapping of large flakes (>10 cm in size) and the shaping of heavy-duty tools (handaxes, cleavers, and picks) for specific tasks. The Acheulean industrial complex, together with the Oldowan, is referred to as the Earlier Stone Age (ESA) and persisted until c. 0.3/0.25 Ma in Africa. Mary Leakey (1971365体育网站) published the first detailed description of the Early...

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Further Reading

  1. Barham, L., and P. Mitchell. 2008. The first Africans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Clark, J.D. 1970. The prehistory of Africa. London: Thames & Hudson.
  3. Klein, R.G. 2000. The earlier stone age of southern Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 55: 107–122.
  4. Klein, R.G. 2009. The human career. 3rd ed. Chicago/London: The University of Chicago Press.
  5. McNabb, J., and A. Sinclair, eds. 2009. The Cave of Hearths: Makapan middle Pleistocene research project. B.A.R. international series, University of Southampton Archaeological series no. 1. Oxford: Archaeopress.
  6. Wonderwerk Cave research. 2015. See: Special Issue: Archaeological and Palaeoenvironmental Perspectives on Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa. African Archaeological Review 4: 591–876.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental StudiesUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chen Shen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of World CulturesRoyal Ontario MuseumTorontoCanada