365体育网站

Zero Hunger

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Achieving Food and Nutrition Security: The Role of Agroecology

  • Lucy AmissahEmail author
  • Godwin K. S. Aflakpui
Living reference work entry
DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69626-3_58-1
  • 213 Downloads

Definitions

Agroecology

Agroecology is defined as the application of ecological principles and concepts to the design and management of sustainable agricultural agroecosystems (Altieri 2005). Agroecosystem forms the basic unit on which agroecological principles are applied.

Introduction

The population of the world has increased in recent years and is projected to reach between 9.6 billion in 2050 and 12.3 billion by 2100 (Gerland et al. 2014). The population of the world is expected to continue increasing for the rest of the century, with at least a 3.5-fold increase in the population of Africa. The population of Asia (mostly South Asia) and Africa (mostly sub-Saharan Africa) are expected to record a great share of the projected increase in population (Lichtfouse et al. 2009365体育网站). The increase in population would definitely be associated with an increase in demand for food, energy, and other natural resources. Food security would therefore be mostly threatened in the regions where the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adiku SGK, Debrah E, Naab JB (2013) “Towards the development of a micro-level weather index-based agricultural insurance to minimise the effect of climate change on crop production in the Upper West Region of Ghana” CCAFS report no.1, Department of Soil Science, University of Ghana
  2. Aflakpui GKS, Vyn TJ, Hall MR, Anderson GW, Swanton CJ (1993) Effect of tillage on nitrogen response in corn (Zea mays L.) after established alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Can J Plant Sci 73:73–81
  3. Aflakpui GKS (2007) Present outlook and transformation in the delivery of agricultural extension services: implications for research–extension–farmer linkages. Outlook Agric 36:35–39
  4. Aflakpui GKS, Boa-Amponsem FK, Anchirinah VM, Osei-Yeboah S, Bolfrey-Arku GE-K, Osei-Bonsu P, Asumadu H, Manu-Aduening JA, Allou PB, Akowuah PK, Baffour A (2007) Sustaining crop production through conservation tillage in Ghana. J Plant Sci 2:68–74
  5. Altieri MA, Rosset P (1996) Agroecology and the conversion of large-scale conventional systems to sustainable management. Int J Environ Stud 50:165–185
  6. Altieri MA (1999) The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. In: Invertebrate biodiversity as bioindicators of sustainable landscapes. Elsevier, Amsterdam; New York, pp 19–31
  7. Altieri MA (2004) Linking ecologists and traditional farmers in the search for sustainable agriculture. Front Ecol Environ 2:35–42
  8. Altieri MA, Toledo VM (2011) The agroecological revolution in Latin America: rescuing nature, ensuring food sovereignty and empowering peasants. J Peasant Stud 38:587–612
  9. Altieri MA (2005) Agroecology: principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. . Date accessed 17 June 2018
  10. Bhandari G (2014) An overview of agrochemicals and their effects on environment in Nepal. Appl Ecol Environ Sci 2:66–73
  11. Blanco-Canqui H, Lal R (2010) Soil and water conservation. In: Blanco-Canqui H, Lal R (eds) Principles of soil conservation and management. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–19
  12. Bokeloh G (2005) Actions/interventions to improve food and nutrition security at meso and micro level. Achieving food and nutrition security. In: Klaus Klennert (Eds) Achieving Food and Nutrition Security Actions to Meet the Global Challenge A Training Course Reader. InWEnt – Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gGmbH. Feldafing, Germany, pp 127–143
  13. Chauvin ND, Mulangu F, Porto G (2012) Food production and consumption trends in sub-Saharan Africa: prospects for the transformation of the agricultural sector. UNDP Regional Bureau for Africa, New York
  14. Dalgaard T, Hutchings NJ, Porter JR (2003) Agroecology, scaling and interdisciplinarity. Agric Ecosyst Environ 100:39–51
  15. de Schutter O (2010) Agroecology and the right to food. Report submitted by the Special Reporter on the right to food. UN General Assembly. Human Rights Council, Sixteenth Session
  16. Duru M, Therond O (2015) Designing agroecological transitions; A review. Agron Sustain Dev 35:1237–1257
  17. Epule ET, Bryant CR (2016) Assessing the effects of agroecology and conventional farming techniques on small-scale peasant farmers crop yields in the Fako and Meme divisions of Cameroon. Afr J Agric Res 11:849–866
  18. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (2015) Agroecology for food Security and nutrition. Proceedings of the FAO international symposium 18–19 September 2014, Rome
  19. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (2017) The future of food and agriculture. Trends and challenges. FAO, Rome
  20. FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, WHO (2017) The state of food security and nutrition in the world 2017: building resilience for peace and food security. FAO, Rome
  21. Frison EA, Cherfas J, Hodgkin T (2011) Agricultural biodiversity is essential for a sustainable improvement in food and nutrition security. Sustainability 3:238–253
  22. Gerland P, Raftery AE, Ševčíková H, Gu N, Li D, Spoorenberg T, Alkema L, Fosdick BK, Chunn J, Lalic N (2014) World population stabilization unlikely this century. Science 346:234–237
  23. Gliessman S, Tittonell P (2015) Agroecology for food security and nutrition. Taylor & Francis Group LLC
  24. Gliessman SR (1998) Field and laboratory investigations in agroecology: a manual to accompany agroecology: ecological processes in sustainable agriculture. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea
  25. Gliessman SR (2006) Agroecology: the ecology of sustainable food systems. CRC press, Boca Raton
  26. Gliessman S (2007) Agroecology: the ecology of sustainable food systems. CRC. Taylor & Francis, New York
  27. Gomiero T (2016) Soil degradation, land scarcity and food security: reviewing a complex challenge. Sustainability 8:281
  28. Haile M (2005) Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B: Biol Sci 360:2169–2182
  29. Hainzelin E (2014) Enhancing the function and provisioning of ecosystem services in agriculture: agroecological principles. In: (FAO 2014) Agroecology for Food Security and Nutrition. Proceedings of the FAO International Symposium 18–19 September 2014, Rome, Italy, pp 36–49
  30. Holt-Giménez E, Altieri MA (2013) Agroecology, food sovereignty, and the new green revolution. Agroecol Sustain Food Syst 37:90–102
  31. Holt-Giménez E, Shattuck A, Altieri M, Herren H, Gliessman S (2012) We already grow enough food for 10 billion people… and still can’t end hunger. Taylor & Francis, London, UK
  32. Holt AR, Alix A, Thompson A, Maltby L (2016) Food production, ecosystem services and biodiversity: we can’t have it all everywhere. Sci Total Environ 573:1422–1429
  33. Johns T, Powell B, Maundu P, Eyzaguirre PB (2013) Agricultural biodiversity as a link between traditional food systems and contemporary development, social integrity and ecological health. J Sci Food Agric 93:3433–3442
  34. Kansiime MK, van Asten P, Sneyers K (2018) Farm diversity and resource use efficiency: targeting agricultural policy interventions in East Africa farming systems. NJAS-Wageningen J Life Sci 85:32–41
  35. Kremen C, Iles A, Bacon C (2012) Diversified farming systems: an agroecological, systems-based alternative to modern industrial agriculture. Ecol Soc 17:44
  36. Kremen C, Miles A (2012) Ecosystem services in biologically diversified versus conventional farming systems: benefits, externalities, and trade-offs. Ecol Soc 17:40
  37. Landis DA (2017) Designing agricultural landscapes for biodiversity-based ecosystem services. Basic Appl Ecol 18:1–12
  38. Lappé FM, Clapp J, Anderson M, Broad R, Messer E, Pogge T, Wise T (2013) How we count hunger matters. Ethics Int Aff 27:251–259
  39. Lichtfouse E, Navarrete M, Debaeke P, Souchère V, Alberola C, Ménassieu J (2009) Agronomy for sustainable agriculture: a review. In: Sustainable agriculture. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–7
  40. Lowder SK, Skoet J, Singh S (2014) What do we really know about the number and distribution of farms and family farms in the world. Background paper for The State of Food and Agriculture 2014 ESA working paper no 14-02, FAO, Rome
  41. Marks E, Aflakpui GKS, Nkem J, Poch RM, Khouma M, Kokou K, Sagoe R, Sebastià MT (2009) Conservation of soil organic carbon, biodiversity and the provision of other ecosystem services along climatic gradients in West Africa. Biogeosciences 6:1825–1838
  42. Mathew RP, Feng Y, Githinji L, Ankumah R, Balkcom KS (2012) Impact of no-tillage and conventional tillage systems on soil microbial communities. Appl Environ Soil Sci 2012:1
  43. Migliorini P, Wezel A (2017) Converging and diverging principles and practices of organic agriculture regulations and agroecology. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 37:63
  44. Nicholls CI, Altieri M (2017) Agroecological approaches to enhance resilience among small farmers. . Accessed 2 July 2018
  45. Perfecto I, Vandermeer J (2010) The agroecological matrix as alternative to the land-sparing/agriculture intensification model. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:5786–5791
  46. Ponisio LC, M’Gonigle LK, Mace KC, Palomino J, de Valpine P, Kremen C (2015) Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap. Proc R Soc B.  
  47. Power AG (2010) Ecosystem services and agriculture: tradeoffs and synergies. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B: Biol Sci 365:2959–2971
  48. Pretty J (2003) Agroecology in developing countries: the promise of a sustainable harvest. Environ: Sci Policy Sustain Dev 45:8–20
  49. Pretty J (2008) Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B: Biol Sci 363:447–465
  50. Silici L (2014) Agroecology: what it is and what it has to offer. IIED issue paper. IIED, London
  51. Tittonell P (2014) Ecological intensification of agriculture – sustainable by nature. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 8:53–61
  52. Tully K, Ryals R (2017) Nutrient cycling in agroecosystems: balancing food and environmental objectives. Agroecol Sustain Food Syst 41:761–798
  53. van Ittersum MK, Cassman KG, Grassini P, Wolf J, Tittonell P, Hochman Z (2013) Yield gap analysis with local to global relevance – a review. Field Crop Res 143:4–17
  54. Wezel A, Bellon S, Doré T, Francis C, Vallod D, David C (2009) Agroecology as a science, a movement and a practice. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 29:503–515
  55. Wezel A, Goris M, Bruil J, Félix GF, Peeters A, Bàrberi P, Bellon S, Migliorini P (2018) Challenges and action points to amplify agroecology in Europe. Sustainability 10:1598
  56. Wood SL, DeClerck F (2015) Ecosystems and human well-being in the sustainable development goals. Front Ecol Environ 13:123–123
  57. Wüstefeld M (2013) Food and Nutrition Security UNSCN meeting of the minds nutrition impact of food systems. United Nation Systems. . Accessed 7 July 2018
  58. Zhang W, Ricketts TH, Kremen C, Carney K, Swinton SM (2007) Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecol Econ 64:253–260

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Services DivisionCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research-Forestry Research Institute of GhanaKumasiGhana
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied Sciences, Methodist University College GhanaWenchiGhana

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vincent Onguso Oeba

365体育网站There are no affiliations available