Zero Hunger

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Alternative Livelihoods Framework: Beyond the Risks and Stress Relief

  • Suzana Djordjević-MiloševićEmail author
  • Jelena Milovanović
Living reference work entry
DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69626-3_8-1




The word “livelihood” can be used in many ways. The following definition captures the broad notion of livelihoods understood here: “A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base.” (Adapted from Chambers and Conway (1992) Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the twenty-first century, IDS Discussion Paper 296. Brighton, IDS) (DFID 2001).

Alternative livelihood

365体育网站It is a term for solutions that...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Arandjelovic M, Drazic G, Milovanovic J, Aleksic S (2014) Miloproduction of viable Miscanthus gigantheus rhizomes at fertile and degraded soil. Bulg J Agric Sci 20:1189–1194
  2. Chambers R (1989) Editorial introduction: vulnerability, coping and policy. IDS Bull 2(2):1–7
  3. Chambers R, Conway G (1992) Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century. IDS discussion paper no. 296. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton
  4. Crawford B (2002) Seaweed farming: an alternative livelihood for small-scale fishers? Coastal Resource Center, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, USA
  5. DFID (The Department for International Development) (2001) Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets, UK
  6. Djordjević-Milošević S, Milovanović J (2014) Linking rural livelihood diversity and sustainable development. Faculty of Applied Ecology Futura Singidunum University Belgrade, Serbia 193 p. ISBN 978-86-86859-35-8
  7. Drinkwater M, McEwan M (1992) Household food security and environmental sustainability in farming systems research: developing sustainable livelihoods. Paper presented to the adaptive planning research team bi-annual review meeting, Mangu, Zambia, 13–16 April
  8. Duffy R, St John FAV, Buscher B, Brockington D (2016) Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting. Conserv Biol 30(1):14–22
  9. Euan FTh, Chabot P, Wright IA (2005) Production and marketing of red meat, wool, skins and hides in Afghanistan. Macaulay Research Consultancy Services and Mercy Corps, Aberdeen, Scotland
  10. FAO (1999) Towards a harmonized definition of non-wood forest products. Unasylva 50(198)., 1999/3
  11. Fauna & Flora International (2013) Why not “alternative livelihoods”?, Conservation, Livelihoods and Governance Programme
  12. Harbi J, Erbaugh JT, Sidiq M, Haasler B, Nurrochmat DR (2018) Making a bridge between livelihoods and forest conservation: lessons from non timber forest products' utilization in south Sumatera, Indonesia. Forest Policy Econ 94:1–10
  13. Jurekova Z, Drazic G, Kotrla M, Marisova E, Milovanović J, Tothova M, Končekova L (2011) Biological factors influencing the growth and biomass production of willows planted in southern Slovakia. Acta regionalia et environmentalica 2:47–52
  14. Krantz L (2001) The sustainable livelihood approach to poverty reduction – an introduction. Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), Stockholm, Sweden
  15. Lazić B (2010) Organska poljoprivreda – zalog za budućnost (Organic production – pledge for the future, Organic news 1, novembar 2010, Serbia organic
  16. Lemke S, Yousefi F, Eisermann AC, Bellows AC (2012) Sustainable livelihoods approaches for exploring smallholder agricultural programs targeted at women: examples from South Africa. J Agric Food Syst Community Dev 3(1):25–41.  
  17. Manlosa A, Hanspach J, Schultner J, Dorresteijn I, Fischer J (2019) Livelihood strategies, capital assets, and food security in rural Southwest Ethiopia. Food Secur 11(1):167–181
  18. Marja R, Herzon I, Viik E, Elts J, Mänd M, Tscharntke T, Batáry P (2014) Environmentally friendly management as an intermediate strategy between organic and conventional agriculture to support biodiversity. Biol Conserv 178:146–154
  19. Matin S, Sullivan C, Finn J, Daire A, Ó hUallacháin D, Green S, Meredith D, Moran J (2020) Assessing the distribution and extent of high nature value farmland in the Republic of Ireland. Ecol Indic 108.  
  20. May C, Brown G, Cooper N, Brill L (2009) The sustainable livelihoods handbook. An asset based approach to poverty, Printed by Church Action on Poverty and Oxfam GB. or . Accessed 2 Sept 2019
  21. Milovanović J, Djordjević-Milošević S (2016) Biodiversity and Rural Livelihood in the Western Balkans. Faculty of Applied Ecology Futura Singidunum University Belgrade. 244 p. ISBN 978-86-86859-52-5
  22. Milovanović J, Babović N, Đorđević A, Spasić S, Marišova E, Končekova L, Kotrla M, Tothova M (2011) In: Jurekova Z, Drazic G (eds) External and internal factors influencing the growth and biomass production of short rotation woods genus Salix and perennial grass Miscanthus. Fakultet za primenjenu ekologiju Futura, Belgrade, Serbia 177 p
  23. Milovanović J, Šijačić-Nikolić M, Nonić M (2019) Climate change aspects in forest genetic resources conservation in Serbia, Forests of Southeast Europe under a changing climate: conservation of genetic resources. Springer International Publishing AG, Switzerland pp 319–332
  24. Nellemann C, Henriksen R, Raxter P, Ash N, Mrema E (eds) (2014) The environmental crime crisis – threats to sustainable development from illegal exploitation and trade in wildlife and forest resources a UNEP rapid response assessment. UN Environment Programme and GRID-Arendal, Nairobi/Arendal
  25. Nemes G (2005) Integrated rural development, the concept and its operation. Discussion papers. Institute of Economics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest
  26. Noronha T (2019) Alternative Livelihoods Working Glossary. Produced by Mercy Corps as part of the SCALE Award.
  27. Olsson L, Opondo M, Tschakert P, Agrawal A, Eriksen SH, Ma S, Perch LN, Zakieldeen SA (2014) Livelihoods and poverty. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, pp 793–832
  28. Pettenella D, Ciccarese L, Dragoi S, Hegedus A, Hingston A, Klöhn S, Matilainen A, Posavec S, Thorfinnsson T (2006) NWFP & S marketing: lessons learned from case studies in Europe. In: Niskanen A (ed) Issues affecting enterprise development in the forest sector in Europe, Research notes 169. University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Joensuu, pp 367–403
  29. Qiao Y, Martin F, Cook S, He X, Halberg N, Scott S, Pan X (2018) Certified organic agriculture as an alternative livelihood strategy for small-scale farmers in China: a case study in Wanzai County, Jiangxi Province. Ecol Econ 145:301–307
  30. Roche R (2007) Livelihoods approaches as a conservation tool.
  31. Roe D, Day M, Booker F, Zhou W, Allebone-Webb S, Kümpel N, O Hill N, Wright J, Rust N, Sunderland T, Redford K, Petrokofsky G (2015) Are alternative livelihood projects effective at reducing local threats to specified elements of biodiversity and/or improving or maintaining the conservation status of those elements? Environ Evid 4, Article number 22. Available on . Accessed 6 Aug
  32. Serrat O (2017) The sustainable livelihoods approach. In: Knowledge solutions. Springer, Singapore.  
  33. Shanley P, Pierce AR, Laird SA, Binnqüist CL, Guariguata MR (2016) From lifelines to livelihoods: non-timber Forest products into the 21st century. In: Pancel L, Köhl M (eds) Tropical forestry handbook. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg
  34. Šijačić-Nikolić M, Milovanović J, Nonić M (2014) Conservation of forest genetic resources. In: Ahuja MR, Ramawat KG (eds) Biotechnology and biodiversity. Springer, Cham, pp 103–128
  35. Townsley P, Whittingham E, Booker F, Ford R, Turner R, Cattermoul B, Campbell J, Forster J, Morrish N, Marsh J (2014) Guidance on supporting processes of livelihood enhancement and diversification. Report prepared as part of the future of reefs in a changing environment project.
  36. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2017) Application of the sustainable livelihoods framework in development projects – guidance note. Regional Centre for Latin America and the Caribbean, Panama City
  37. USAID (2016) Office of food for peace. Food Assistance and Food Security Strategy 2016–2025,
  38. USAID (2017a) Feed the future. GFSS technical guidance: diversifying livelihoods, resilience, and pathways out of poverty.
  39. USAID (2017b) Livelihoods Diversification Analysis(LDA): literature review. USAID, Senegal, Washington, DC,
  40. Wicander S, Coad L (2018) Can the provision of alternative livelihoods reduce the impact of wild meat hunting in west and Central Africa? Conserv Soc 16(4):441–458
  41. Windfuhr M, Jonsen J (2005) Food Sovereignty: towards democracy in localized food systems.
  42. Wright JH, Hill NA, Roe D, Rowcliffe JM, Kümpel NF, Day M, Booker F, Milner-Gulland EJ (2016) Reframing the concept of alternative livelihoods. Conserv Biol 30(1):7–13.  .
  43. Yanggen D (2006) The role of alternative livelihoods in achieving a people-centered approach to conservation: lesson learned from the CARPE program.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzana Djordjević-Milošević
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jelena Milovanović
    • 1
  1. 1.Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentSingidunum UniversityBelgradeSerbia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ManagementRasht Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityRashtIran