365体育网站

Encyclopedia of Social Insects

Living Edition
| Editors: Christopher K. Starr

Ant-Hemiptera Associations

  • Elizabeth G. PringleEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90306-4_8-1

Synonyms

Introduction

Ant-Hemiptera associations form when plant-feeding insects of the order Hemiptera provision ants (Formicidae) with food. Most commonly, hemipteran insects feed on plant phloem sap and excrete a sugar-rich waste product known as honeydew, which ants consume (Fig. 1). Diverse taxa within Hemiptera – commonly including members of the suborders Sternorrhyncha (e.g., aphids, coccoids, psyllids, and whiteflies) and Auchenorrhyncha (e.g., treehoppers, leafhoppers, and plant hoppers) – provide honeydew to ants and are also known as trophobionts. Although ants descended from predatory ancestors, species in several subfamilies – most prominently Formicinae, Dolichoderinae, and Myrmicinae – frequently visit hemipterans and make honeydew a substantial part of their diet. Ant-hemipteran associations range from obligate to facultative, and from mutually beneficial (+ +) to predatory (+ −).
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
    Blüthgen, N., Verhaagh, M., Goitía, W., Jaffé, K., Morawetz, W., & Barthlott, W. (2000). How plants shape the ant community in the Amazonian rainforest canopy: The key role of extrafloral nectaries and homopteran honeydew. Oecologia, 125, 229–240.
  2. 2.
    Davidson, D. W., Cook, S. C., Snelling, R. R., & Chua, T. H. (2003). Explaining the abundance of ants in lowland tropical rainforest canopies. Science, 300, 969–972.
  3. 3.
    Delabie, J. H. (2001). Trophobiosis between Formicidae and Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha): An overview. Neotropical Entomology, 30, 501–516.
  4. 4.
    Stadler, B., & Dixon, A. F. G. (2005). Ecology and evolution of aphid-ant interactions. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 36, 345–372.
  5. 5.
    Styrsky, J. D., & Eubanks, M. D. (2007). Ecological consequences of interactions between ants and honeydew-producing insects. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 274, 151–164.
  6. 6.
    Adrián Salazar, Benjamin Fürstenau, Carmen Quero, Nicolás Pérez-Hidalgo, Pau Carazo, Enrique Font, David Martínez-Torres, (2015) Aggressive mimicry coexists with mutualism in an aphid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (4):1101–1106

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and Program in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation BiologyUniversity of Nevada, RenoRenoUSA