365体育网站

Advertisement

Bürokratie

  • Kai-Uwe SchnappEmail author
  • Roland Willner
Living reference work entry
  • 85 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Gegenstand des Beitrags ist die Struktur der Bundesbürokratie in den USA, die komplexe Interaktion von politischen Beamten und permanent beschäftigten civil servants in dieser Ministerialverwaltung sowie das Zusammenspiel von federal bureaucracy, Präsident und Kongress. Im Zentrum stehen zwei Fragen: Erstens welchen Einfluss hat die federal bureaucracy auf politische Entscheidungsprozesse? Zweitens inwieweit kann der Präsident die Bundesbürokratie dazu bringen seine politischen Programme umzusetzen und wenn ja wie? Bei der Beantwortung der zweiten Frage spielen die so genannten issue networks365体育网站 aus Bürokratie, Kongressabgeordneten und Interessengruppen eine zentrale Rolle, denn sie sind ein Faktor, der die Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten des Präsidenten erkennbar begrenzt.

Schlüsselwörter

USA Bundesbürokratie Präsidentschaft Kongress issue networks (Themennetzwerke) Agency öffentlicher Dienst (civil service) 

Literatur

  1. Aberbach, J.D. 1990. What has happened to the US Senior Civil Service. Brookings Review 18: 35–41.
  2. Aberbach, J.D. 2003. The U.S. Federal Executive in an Era of Change. Governance 16: 373–399.
  3. Anagnoson, T. 2011. The United States Civil Service. In International Handbook on Civil Service Systems, Hrsg. A. Massey, 125–151. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  4. Beer, S.H. 1978. In Search of a New Public Philosophy. In The New American Political System, Hrsg. Anthony King,: American Enterprise Institute, S. 5–44.
  5. Campbell, C.S.J., und B.G. Peters. 1988. The Politics/Administration Dichotomy: Death or Merely Change? Governance 1: 79–99.
  6. Clinton, J.D., D.E. Lewis, und J.L. Selin. 2014. Influencing the Bureaucracy: The Irony of Congressional Oversight. American Journal of Political Science 58: 387–401.
  7. Davidson, R.H. 1990. Congress as a Representative Institution. In The U.S. Congress and the German Bundestag. Comparisons of Democratic Processes, Hrsg. R.H. Davidson und U. Thaysen, 45–66. Boulder: Westview Press.
  8. Durant, R.F., und W.G. Resh. 2010. „Presidentializing“ the Bureaucracy. In The Oxford Handbook of American Bureaucracy, Hrsg. R.F. Durant, 545–568. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  9. EPA (2013). The Clean Air Act in a Nutshell: How It Works. . Zugegriffen am 18.07.2014.
  10. Executive Office of the President 2013. Impacts and Costs of the October 2013 Federal Government Shutdown, Washington D.C.
  11. Fenno, R. 1966. The Power of the Purse. Appropriations Politics in Congress. Boston: Little Brown.
  12. Fiorina, M.P. 1977. An Outline for a Model of Party Choice. American Journal Political Science 21: 601–625.
  13. Freeman, J.L. 1969. The Political Process: Executive Bureau - Legislative Committee Relations. New York: Random House.
  14. Gellner, W., und M. Kleiber. 2012. Das Regierungssystem der USA. Eine Einführung. Nomos: Baden-Baden.
  15. Glassman, R.M. 1987. The United States: The Anti-Statist Society. In The State and Public Bureaucracies. A Comparative Perspective, Hrsg. M. Heper, 27–39. New York: Greenwood press.
  16. Gormley, W.T. 1991. Bureaucracy and its Masters. Governance 1: 1–18.
  17. Hansen MG, und Charles H. Levine 1988. The Centralization-Dezentralization Tug-of-War in the New Executive Branch, In Organizing Governance. Governing Organizations, Hrsg. Colin SJ Campbell, und B. Guy Peters. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press.
  18. Heady, F. 1988. The United States. In Public Administration in Developed Democracies. A Comparative Study, Hrsg. D.C. Rowat, 395–418. New York/Basel: Marcel Dekker.
  19. Heclo, H. 1977. A Government of Strangers. Executive Politics in Washington. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
  20. Heclo, H. 1978. Issue Networks and the Executive Establishment. In The New American Political System, Hrsg. A. King, 94–105. Washington: American Enterprise Institute.
  21. Heclo, H. 1984. In Search of a Role. Americas Higher Civil Service. In Bureaucrats and Policy Making. A Comparative Overview, Hrsg. Ezra N. Suleiman. Holmes und Meier, London.
  22. Heclo, H. 1986. Whitehall and Washington Revisited: In Essay on Constitutional Lore. In Politics in Britain and the United States. Comparative Perspectives, Hrsg. R. Hodder-Williams und J. Ceasar, 88–118. Durham: Duke University Press.
  23. Heclo, H. 1988. The In-and-Outer System: A Critical Assessment. Political Science Quaterly 103: 37–56.
  24. Hess, S. 1976. Organizing the Presidency. Washington D.C: Brookings Institution.
  25. Hollibaugh, G.E., G. Horton, und D.E. Lewis. 2013. Presidents and Patronage. Nashville, Tennessee: CSDI - Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, Vanderbilt University.
  26. Lewis, D.E., und R.W. Waterman. 2013. The Invisible Presidential Appointments: In Examination of Appointments to the Department of Labor, 2001–11. Presidential Studies Quarterly 43: 35–57.
  27. Lowi, T.J. 1969. The End of Liberalism: Ideology, Policy and the End of Public Authority. New York: W.W. Norton.
  28. MacDonald, J. 2013. Congressional Power over Executive Branch Policy Making: Limitations on Bureaucratic Regulations, 1989–2009. Presidential Studies Quarterly 43: 523–537.
  29. Martin, D.W. 1988. Fading Legacy of Woodrow Wilson. Public Administration Review 48: 631–636.
  30. McKeever, R.J., und P. Davies. 2012. Politics USA. Harlow: Pearson.
  31. Nathan, R. 1975. The Plot That Failed: Nixon and the Administrative Presidency. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  32. Oldopp, B. 2005. Das politische System der USA. Eine Einführung. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
  33. Olsen, J.P. 2008. The Ups and Downs of Bureaucratic Organization. Annual Review of Political Science 11: 13–37.
  34. Opensecrets.org. (2014) Reelection Rates Over the Years. . Zugegriffen am 24.09.2014.
  35. Peters, B.G. 2011. Governing from the Centre(s): Governance Challenges in the United States. In Steering From the Centre. Strengthening Political Control in Western Democracies, Hrsg. C. Dahlström, B.G. Peters, und Jon Pierre, 123–146. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  36. Pfiffner, J.P. 2010. President Obama's White House „Czars“. PRG Report 32: 5–7.
  37. Ripley, R.B., und G.A. Franklin. 1980. Congress, the Bureaucracy and Public Policy. Homewood: Dorsey Press.
  38. Rockman, B.A., und T. Thiam. 2009. The United States: the Political Context of Administrative Reform. In International Handbook of Public Management Reform, Hrsg. S.F. Goldfinch und J.L. Wallis, 200–219. Cheltenham: Elgar.
  39. Rudalevige, A. 2002. Managing the President’s Program: Presidential Leadership and Legislative Policy Formulation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  40. Savoie, D.J. 1994. Thatcher, Reagan, Mulroney: In Search of a New Bureaucracy. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  41. Schnapp, K.-U. 2004. Ministerialbürokratien in westlichen Demokratien. Eine vergleichende Analyse. Opladen: Leske+Budrich.
  42. Stockman, D.A. 1986. The Triumph of Politics: How the Reagan Revolution Failed. New York: Harper & Row.
  43. Svara, J.H. 2001. The The Myth of the Dichotomy: Complementarity of Politics and Administration in the Past and Future of Public Administration, Public Adminisatration Review 61: 176–183.
  44. Thayer, F.C. 1997. The U.S. Civil Service: 1883–1993 (R.I.P.). In Modern Systems of Government, Hrsg. Ali Farazmand, 95–124. Thousand Oaks/London/New Dehli: Sage.
  45. Villalobos, J., und J.S. Vaughn. 2010. Revolt against the Czars: Why Barack Obama’s Staffing Critics Are (Mostly) Wrong. PRG Report 32: 8–10.
  46. Weber, M. 1972. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr.
  47. Wilson, J.Q. 2009. American Government. Brief Version. Boston: Wadsworth Publ.

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für PolitikwissenschaftUniversität HamburgHamburgDeutschland
  2. 2.HamburgDeutschland

Personalised recommendations